Key Themes and the Nature of Economic Growth
October 14, 2020
By: Arun Kaul
In terms of wealth and debt, financial markets dwarf the real economy. In a levered economic system, with debt markets 2x the size of GDP, economic growth is very sensitive to financial conditions – creating both negative and positive feedback loops (Figure 1).
“Easier financial conditions will promote economic growth. For example, lower mortgage rates will make housing more affordable and allow more homeowners to refinance. Lower corporate bond rates will encourage investment. And higher stock prices will boost consumer wealth and help increase confidence, which can also spur spending. Increased spending will lead to higher incomes and profits that, in a virtuous circle, will further support economic expansion” (Ben Bernanke, Chairman, Federal Reserve Op-Ed, Washington Post, November 4, 2010).
Bernanke’s ‘virtuous circle’ will also work in reverse.
The Fed is now the ‘asset manager of last resort.’ The U.S. economic system is not more centrally managed. Prior to the 2000 recession, the Fed balance sheet, used for management of short-term rates, was near 7% overall GDP and had been stable. Post 2009, the balance sheet grew to 25% and now post 2020 it is 36% (Figure 2)
There are now larger debt markets and larger central bank balance sheets. The U.S., ECB, Japan have all expanded central bank balance sheets dramatically. Japan’s is now larger than country GDP. The Central Bank’s ownership of asset classes is expanding with regards to government bonds, MBS, corporate bonds, gold, equities, ETFs, direct corp lending, and potentially munis and credit quality. Growing Central Bank balance sheets impede true ‘price discovery’ in capital markets (Figure 3).
The U.S. and China are disproportionately more significant in contribution to global growth than any other nation. The U.S is responsible for 19.6% of 2021 global growth contribution, and China is responsible for 20.1%. The nest largest nations, Germany, the U.K., France, India, Japan, Italy, Brazil, Korea, and Russia, all fall between 1% to 4% (Figure 4).
The U.S. economy is still 30% larger than the Chinese but is not forecasted to grow at less that 2% a year while China grows 4% to 5% a year. This is partly due to the economic class between the two largest economies that operate under very different systems. The key issues between the economies of the U.S. and China include trade, stealing intellectual property, forced technology transfers, state owned enterprises receiving heavy subsidies, product dumping, currency manipulation, hacking, and cyber security.
The changing nature of the economy drives enterprise value. As the U.S. economy evolves further toward a knowledge-based economy, opportunities for industries to drive exponential sales growth proliferate. Successful firms feature innovate ideas but more importantly, they typically provide higher margin businesses with faster segment penetration ratios. Scarcity vs abundance changes the dynamics dramatically (Figure 5).